Clay County, Florida is a Home Rule Charter county and has full power of self-government granted by the constitution and laws of the State of Florida.

Clay County operates under an appointed County Manager form of government, a form in which an appointed county manager is overseen by a board of elected supervisors, with a separation of executive and legislative responsibilities in accordance with the Clay County Home Rule Charter. Legislative responsibility rests with Clay County Board of County Commissioners.

From the Clay County website: "The Clay County Board of County Commissioners has established its number one priority as economic development."